All About Xanthones


Xanthones and The Science of Whole Fruit Mangosteen *

The Surging Antioxidant


Long revered in Southeast Asia for its taste and nutritional properties, modern science is only now catching up to what people have known for years about the health benefits of the whole mangosteen fruit.


Traditionally, the whole fruit was ingested or used topically to treat far-ranging and diverse conditions. Today, ongoing research continues to find health benefits associated with the mangosteen's natural plant compounds known as antioxidants. 


What sets the mangosteen apart from other antioxidant-containing fruit is the unique antioxidant content of its pericarp or rind, which is the most nutrient dense portion of the fruit and contains nature’s most concentrated source of xanthones and a large concentration of flavonoids, vigorous phytonutrients. 


Research shows that consuming mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) fruit in its whole fruit form – pulp and rind – as is found in the proprietary formula of XanGo Juice, enables absorption of its numerous phytonutrients, allowing for optimization of its antioxidative properties.







More flavonoids – catechins and proanthocyanidins (PCOs) – are found in the whole mangosteen fruit than in dark chocolate, grapes and blueberries. 


Catechins belong to the flavan-3-ol class of flavonoids – a part of the bioflavonoid family. The catechins found in green tea are slightly more abundant in the whole mangosteen fruit, and the health benefits of catechins have been studied extensively in humans and in animal models. Science shows catechins may help maintain cartilage, cardiovascular health and respiratory systems.* 


PCOs are a significant source of antioxidants that deactivate free radicals before they have a chance to harm your body. Therefore the protection from free radicals that PCOs offer helps to increase efficiency of the circulatory system and play a key role in maintaining intestinal health and cell integrity.* PCOs also may help support the immune system and promote a healthy seasonal respiratory system.* 




The whole mangosteen fruit delivers powerful antioxidants that contain approximately 39 different xanthones. Xanthones are biologically active plant phenols with powerful antioxidant compounds, more potent than vitamins C and E. 


Research shows xanthones possess properties that may:

  • sustain a healthy cardiovascular system.*
  • support cartilage and joint function.*
  • support the immune system.*
  • promote a healthy seasonal respiratory system.
  • maintain intestinal health.*
  • neutralize free radicals. *



Mangosteen Research:  


With scientific partners that include Northridge, Calif.-based Medicus Research, Montreal-based Charles River Laboratories and Weber State University, XanGo, LLC is spearheading the scientific exploration of the whole mangosteen fruit through a tiered approach based on safety, standardization and efficacy. In a study published in the June 2007 issue of the Journal of Separation Science and in accordance with AOAC protocol, researchers established a standard scientific method for testing and measuring the nutrient-dense xanthones found in the mangosteen. XanGo also released preliminary results from a separate bioavailability study of xanthones and XanGo® Juice that indicated usage of the whole mangosteen fruit as a delivery vehicle leads to high xanthone absorption. This pre-clinical trial showed that unnaturally elevated levels of xanthone consumption through means such as extracts were shown to result in decreased absorption efficiency.




Sample Research:


1.     Chomnawang M, Surassmo S, Nukoolkarn V, Gritsanapan W. Effect of Garcinia mangostana on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes. Fitoterapia. 2007;78(6):401-408.  

2.     Dharmaratne H. Antibacterial activity of alpha-mangostin against vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and synergism with antibiotics. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(3):203-208.  

3.     Ee G, Daud S, Taufiq-Yap Y, Ismail N, Rahmani M. Xanthones from Garcinia mangostana (Guttiferae). Nat Prod Res. 2006;20(12):1067-1073.  

4.     Feng J, Yamakuni T, Katoh E, Hosada S, Ohizumi Y. Potent antioxidant activity of unripe fruits of Garcinia mangostana L. Natural Medicines. 2004;58:156-159.  

5.     Fu C, Loo A, Chia F, Huang D. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins from mangosteen pericarps. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55(19):7689-7694.  

6.     Gales L, Damas A. Xanthones-A structural perspective. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2005;12:2499-2515.  

7.     Ho C, Huang Y, Chen C. Garcinone E, a xanthone derivative, has potent cytotoxic effect against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Planta Med. 2002;68(11):975-979.  

8.     Ji X, Avula B, Khan IA. Quantitative and qualitative determination of six xanthones in Garcinia mangostana L. by LC-PDA and LC-ESI-MS. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007;43(4):1270-1276.  

9.     Jung HA, Su BN, Keller WJ, Mehta RG, AD K. Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen). J Agric Food Chem. March 22 2006;54(6):2077-2082.  

10.  Leong L, Shui G. An investigation of antioxidant capacity of fruits in Singapore markets. Food Chemistry. 2002;76:69-75.  

11.  Phongpaichit S, Rungjindamai N, Rukachaisirikul V, J S. Antimicrobial activity in cultures of endophytic fungi isolated from Garcinia species. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2006.  

12.  Pinto M, Sousa M, Nascimento M. Xanthone derivatives: New insights in biological activities. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2005;12:2517-2538.  

13.  Pongphasuk N, Khunkitti W, Chitcharoenthum M. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the extract from Garcinia mangostana Linn. Traditional Medicine & Nutraceuticals. 2005;6:125-130.  

14.  Rassameemasmaung S, Sirikulsathean A, Amornchat C, Hirunrat K, Rojanapanthu P, Gritsanapan W. Effects of herbal mouthwash containing the pericarp extract of Garcinia mangostana L on halitosis, plaque and papillary bleeding index. J Int Acad Periodontol. 2007;9(1):19-25.  

15.  Riscoe M, Kelly J, WInter R. Xanthones as antimalarial agents: Discovery, mode of action, and optimization. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2005;12:2539-2549.  

16.  Sakagami Y, Iinuma M, Piyasena K, Dharmaratne H. Antibacterial activity of alpha-mangostin against vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) and synergism with antibiotics. Phytomedicine. 2005;12(3):203-208.  

17.  Voravuthikunchai SP, Kitpipit L. Activity of medicinal plant extracts against hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005;11(6):510-512.  

18.  Voravuthikunchai SP, Lortheeranuwat A, Jeeju W, Sririrak T, Phongpaicht S, Supawita T. Effective medicinal plants against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157:H7. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004;94:49-54.  

19.  Voravuthikunchai SP, Popaya W, Supawita T. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts of medicinal plants used in Thailand against pathogenic bacteria. Ethnopharmacologia. 2004;33:60-65.  

20.  Weecharangsan W, Opanasopit P, Sukma M, Ngawhirunpat T, Sotanaphun U, Siripong P. Antioxidative and neuroprotective activities of extracts from the fruit full of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.). Med Princ Pract. 2006;15:281-287.   


*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.